时间：<2020-06-02 19:39:56 作者：sG重慶教育展K0r 浏览量：9777
《关于山东11选5彩票网址最新相关内容》:If asked for advice as to the most important object for an apprentice to aim at in beginning his fitting course, nine out of ten experienced men will say, "to do work well." As power is measured by force and velocity, work is measured by the two conditions of skill and time. The first consideration being, how well a thing may be done, and secondly, in how short a time may it be performed; the skill spent on a piece of work is the measure of its worth; if work is badly executed, it makes no difference how short the time of performance has been; this can add nothing to the value of what is done although the expense is diminished.
【山东11选5彩票网址】Following this subject of future improvement farther, it may be assumed that an engineer who understands the application and operation of some special machine, the principles that govern its movements, the endurance of the wearing surfaces, the direction and measure of the strains, and who also understands the principles of the distribution of material, arrangement, and proportions,—that such an engineer will be able to construct machines, the plans of which will not be materially departed from so long as the nature of the operations to which  the machines are applied remain the same.Third.—The soundness of such parts as are to be planed, bored, and turned in finishing; this is also a matter that is determined mainly by how the patterns are arranged, by which is the top and which the bottom or drag side, the manner of drawing, and provisions for avoiding dirt and slag.
By assuming this or any other well-proved example, and estimating larger or smaller shafts by keeping their diameters as the cube root of the power to be transmitted, the distance between bearings as the diameter, and the speed inverse as the diameter, the reader will find his calculations to agree approximately with the modern practice of our best engineers. This is not mentioned to give proportions for shafts, so much as to call attention to accidental strains, such as winding belts, and to call attention to a marked discrepancy between actual practice and such proportions as would be given by what has been called the measured or determinable strains to which shafts are subjected.Power-hammers operated by crank motion, adapted to the lighter kinds of work, are now commonly met with in the forging-shops of engineering establishments. They are usually of very simple construction, and I will mention only two points in regard to such hammers, which might be overlooked by an apprentice in examining them.
Lathes in common use for machine fitting are screw-cutting engine lathes, lathes for turning only, double-geared, single-geared, and back-geared lathes, lathes for boring, hand-lathes, and pulley-turning lathes; also compound lathes with double heads and two tool carriages. Lastly, proportions; having estimated the cutting force required at one ton, although less than the actual strain in a machine of this kind, we proceed upon this to fix proportions,  beginning with the tool shank, and following back through the adjusting saddle, the cutting bar, connections, crank pins, shafts, and gear wheels to the belt. Starting again at the tool, or point of cutting, following through the supports of the rack, the jaws that clamp it, the saddle for the graduating adjustment, the connections with the main frame, and so on to the crank-shaft bearing a second time, dimensions may be fixed for each piece to withstand the strains without deflection or danger of breaking. Such proportions cannot, I am aware, be brought within the rules of ordinary practice by relying upon calculation alone to fix them, and no such course is suggested; calculation may aid, but cannot determine proportions in such cases; besides, symmetry, which cannot be altogether disregarded, modifies the form and sometimes the dimensions of various parts.
【山东11选5彩票网址】Thin sections of steel tools being projections from the mass which supports the edges, are cooled first, and if provision is not made to allow for contraction they are torn asunder.There is nothing in the construction or operation of milling machines but what will be at once understood by a learner who sees them in operation. The whole intricacy of the process lies in its application or economic value, and but very few, even among the most skilled, are able in all cases to decide when milling can be employed to advantage. Theoretical conclusions, aside from practical experience, will lead one to suppose that milling can be applied in nearly all kinds of work, an opinion  which has in many cases led to serious mistakes.
I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.CHAPTER XXXIV. BORING AND DRILLING.
【山东11选5彩票网址】The principal improvements and changes in machine fitting at the present time is in the application of special tools. A lathe, a planing machine, or drilling machine as a standard machine, must be adapted to a certain range of work, but it is evident that if such tools were specially arranged for either the largest or the smallest pieces that come within their capacity, more work could be performed in a given time and consequently at less expense. It is also evident that machine tools must be kept constantly at work in order to be profitable, and when there are not sufficient pieces of one kind to occupy a machine, it must be employed on various kinds of work; but whenever there are sufficient pieces of the same size upon which certain processes of a uniform character are to be performed, there is a gain by having machines constructed to conform as nearly as possible to the requirements of special work, and without reference to any other.
5. The lubrication of surfaces working under air pressure, such as the pistons and valves of engines.Air seems to be the most natural and available medium for transmitting and distributing power upon any general system like water or gas, and there is every probability of such a system existing at some future time. The power given out by the expansion of air is not equal to the power consumed in compressing it, but the loss is but insignificant compared with the advantages that may be gained in other ways. There is no subject more interesting, and perhaps few more important for an engineering student to study at this time, than the transmission of power and the transport of material by pneumatic apparatus.
【山东11选5彩票网址】Vertical handling, although it consumes more power, as a rule costs less, is more convenient, and requires less room than horizontal handling, which is sure to interfere more or less with the constructive operations of a workshop. In machine fitting there is generally a wrong estimate placed upon the value of ground floors, which are no doubt indispensable for the heaviest class of work, and for the heaviest tools; but with an ordinary class of work, where the pieces do not exceed two tons in weight, upper floors if strong are quite as convenient, if there is proper machinery for handling material; in fact, the records of any establishment, where cost accounts are carefully made up, will show that the expense of fitting on upper floors is less than on ground floors. This is to be accounted for by better light, and a removal of the fitting from the influences and interference of other operations that must necessarily be carried on upon ground floors.