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《关于哈士奇=搜新网最新相关内容》:To point out some of the leading points or conditions to be taken into account in pattern-making, and which must be understood in order to manage this department, I will refer to them in consecutive order.
【哈士奇=搜新网】Machinery subjected to destructive wear, and to be operated at a distance from machine shops—locomotive engines for example—if not constructed with standard dimensions, may, by the detention due to repairing, cause a loss and inconvenience equal to their value; if a shaft wheel bearing, or even a fitted screw bolt is broken, time must be allowed to make the parts new; and in order to fit them, the whole machine, or such of its details as have connection with the broken parts, must be taken to a shop in order to fit by trial.Reciprocating tools are divided into those wherein the cutting movement is given to the tools, as in shaping and slotting machines, and machines wherein the cutting movement is given to the material to be planed, as in a common planing machine. Very strangely we find in general practice that machine tools for both the heaviest and the lightest class of work, such as shaping, and butting, operate upon the first principle, while pieces of a medium size are generally planed by being moved in contact with stationary tools.Machinery of transportation.
Formerly an apprentice entered a shop to learn hand skill, and to acquaint himself with a number of mysterious processes; to learn a series of arbitrary rules which might serve to place him at a disadvantage even with those whose capacity was inferior and who had less education; but now the whole is changed. An engineer apprentice enters the shop with a confidence that he may learn whatever the facilities afford if he will put forth the required efforts; there are no mysteries to be solved; nearly all problems are reached and explained by science, leaving a greater share of the shop-time of a learner to be devoted to studying what is special.
Artistic drawing is addressed to the senses, geometrical drawing is addressed to the understanding. Geometrical drawing may, however, include artistic skill not in the way of ornamentation, but to convey an impression of neatness and completeness, that has by common custom been assumed among engineers, and which conveys to the mind an idea of competent construction in the drawing itself, as well as of the machinery which is represented. Artistic effect, so far as admissible in mechanical drawing, is easy to learn, and should be understood, yet through a desire to make pictures, a beginner is often led to neglect that which is more important in the way of accuracy and arrangement.
Some makers of steam-hammers have so perfected the automatic class, that they may be instantly changed so as to work with either dead blows or elastic blows at pleasure, thereby combining all the advantages of both principles. This brings the steam-hammer where it is hard to imagine a want of farther improvement.Separating machines, such as bolts and screens, which may be called a class, require no explanation. The employment of magnetic machines to separate iron and brass filings or shop waste, may be noted as a recent improvement of some importance.
Perseverance is an important trait to be cultivated in first efforts at designing; it takes a certain amount of study to understand any branch of mechanism, no matter what natural capacity may be possessed by a learner. Mechanical operations are not learned intuitively, but are always surrounded by many peculiar conditions which must be learned seriatim, and it is only by an untiring perseverance at one thing that there can be any hope of improving it by new designs.Machine motion is mainly rotary; and as rotary motion is accomplished by cylindrical parts such as shafts, bearings, pulleys and wheels, we find that the greater share of machine tools are directed to preparing cylindrical forms. If we note the area of the turned, bored and drilled surface in ordinary machinery, and compare with the amount of planed surface, we will find the former not less than as two to one in the finer class of machinery, and as three to one in the coarser class; from this may be estimated approximately the proportion of tools required for operating on cylindrical surfaces and plane surfaces; assuming the cutting tools to have the same capacity in the two cases, the proportion will be as three to one. This difference between the number of machines required for cylindrical and plane surfaces is farther increased, when we consider that tools act continually on cylindrical surfaces and intermittently on plane surfaces.
【哈士奇=搜新网】Let the reader compare a hammer with a wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, or lever, as an agent for concentrating and applying power, noting the principles of its action first, and then considering its universal use, and he will conclude that, if there is a mechanical device that comprehends distinct principles, that device is the common hammer. It seems, indeed, to be one of those provisions to meet a human necessity, and without which mechanical industry could not be carried on. In the manipulation of nearly every kind of material, the hammer is continually necessary in order to exert a force beyond what the hands may do, unaided by mechanism to multiply their force. A carpenter in driving a spike requires a force of from one to two tons; a blacksmith requires a force of from five pounds to five tons to meet the requirements of his work; a stonemason applies a force of from one hundred to one thousand pounds in driving the edge of his tools; chipping, calking, in fact nearly all mechanical operations, consist more or less in blows, such blows being the application of accumulated force expended throughout a limited distance.Our text-books, such as are available for apprentices, consist mainly of mathematical formul? relating to forces, the properties of material, examples of practice, and so on, but do not deal with the operation of machines nor with constructive manipulation, leaving out that most important part of a mechanical education, which consists in special as distinguished from general knowledge.
CHAPTER XXVIII. TEMPERING STEEL.Wind-power, aside from the objections of uncertainty and irregularity, is the cheapest kind of motive-power. Steam machinery, besides costing a large sum as an investment, is continually deteriorating in value, consumes fuel, and requires continual skilled attention. Water-power also requires a large investment, greater in many cases than steam-power, and in many places the plant is in danger of destruction by freshets. Wind-power is less expensive in every way, but is unreliable for constancy except in certain localities, and these, as it happens, are for the most part distant from other elements of manufacturing industry. The operation of wind-wheels is so simple and so generally understood that no reference to mechanism need be made here. The force of the wind, moving in right lines, is easily applied to producing rotary motion, the difference from water-power being mainly in the comparative weakness of wind currents and the greater area required in the vanes upon which the wind acts. Turbine wind-wheels have been constructed on very much the same plan as turbine water-wheels. In speaking of wind-power, the propositions about heat must not be forgotten. It has been explained how heat is almost directly utilised by the steam-engine, and how the effect of heat is utilised by water-wheels in  a less direct manner, and the same connection will be found between heat and wind-wheels or wind-power. Currents of air are due to changes of temperature, and the connection between the heat that produces such air currents and their application as power is no more intricate than in the case of water-power.As remarked, every attempt to generate anything new in machinery should be commenced by ascertaining a want of improvement. When such a want has been ascertained, attention should be directed first to the principles upon which such want or fault is to be remedied. Proper mechanism can then be supplied like the missing links in a chain. Propositions thus stated may fail to convey the meaning intended; this systematic plan of inventing may be better explained by an example.